Project Descriptions 2019

If no project description is available here, please contact the supervisor directly.

Cooling the MICE Target

Dr. C N Booth - D24

The target for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment, MICE, consists of a small piece of titanium which is driven into the halo of the proton beam of the ISIS accelerator in order to generate (eventually) muons. The target is mounted at the bottom of a shaft, which in turn is connected to a set of magnets positioned in a series of fixed coils. When the coils are pulsed, the target is driven in and out of the beam as required. In addition to the small number of protons generating useful particles in the target, a large number simply pass through the target depositing energy. This energy results in significant heating of the target. Conduction of heat up the shaft will heat up the magnets and may raise them to their Curie temperature, causing failure of the device.

The project requires the construction of a computer model of the thermal properties of the target. Since it is mounted inside a vacuum, only conduction and radiation need be included. Different geometries and materials may be considered, in order to produce a target which will be able to survive the thermal environment.

This project requires a reasonable degree of proficiency in some programming language (Python, C, C++, Fortran, ...). Although there will be the opportunity to consider the interactions of protons with the target, this is not really a particle physics project. Only a knowledge of basic thermal physics is required.

The High-Energy Cosmic Ray Cut-Off

Dr. C N Booth - D24

The origin and composition of high-energy cosmic rays is still somewhat of a mystery, with both galactic and extra-galactic sources being proposed. There are, however, fundamental limits to the distance that the very highest energy cosmic rays should be able to travel. This project uses basic relativity and particle physics to investigate this limit.

High-energy gamma rays will interact with protons, exciting them into unstable states which rapidly decay. In the rest frame of a high energy cosmic ray (assumed here to be a proton), the photons forming the cosmic microwave background appear as having very high energy. A first calculation will be to determine the energy of a proton which can interact with a microwave photon characteristic of the 2.7 K radiation to produce an excited state. Using a formula for the energy dependence of the cross section (in the centre of mass or proton frames), the variation in cross section with cosmic ray energy will be evaluated. More sophisticated treatment will involve considering the black-body spectrum of microwave photons and their angular distribution. Finally, incorporating the number density of the photons will enable the mean free path of high-energy cosmic rays propagating through the universe to be determined.

This project is a modelling and computer simulation exercise. Early parts of the analysis could be performed with simple calculations and computer spreadsheets, but the full evaluation will require programming skills.

The Neutrino Factory and Neutrino Oscillations

Dr. C N Booth - D24

In the Standard Model of Particle Physics, the three types of neutrino are massless particles, and each carries its own specific lepton number which is absolutely conserved. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the neutrinos have very small but finite masses, and that the different types may "mix", allowing for example an electron neutrino produced in the sun to transform into a muon neutrino by the time it reaches the earth.

In order to study such mixing, which can lead to oscillations between neutrino types, it has been proposed that a neutrino factory should be built. This would use the decays of relativistic muons to generate beams of neutrinos, which would then be detected in apparatus hundreds of kilometres away.

This project involves the modelling of muon decay in order to determine the flux of the various neutrino species at a distant site. By considering the cross sections for neutrino interactions in matter, the number of detectable interactions will be determined. Then if neutrino mass and mixing are added to the model, the size of the signal for neutrino oscillation can also be determined.

An initial study should be done with a spreadsheet package such as Excel. More detailed results will more easily be obtained from an analytic program (written for example in C or Python) or a Monte Carlo simulation of the physics involved. Students who make good progress should be able to extend their calculation to incorporate polarisation of the initial muons and different mechanisms for neutrino oscillation. Neutrinos arising from pion decay could also be considered.

This project is suitable for students with ability in a scientific programming language. There is no laboratory work involved.

Design of a First or Second Year Option Course

Dr. S Cartwright (D22)

The Department has recently reviewed the Level 1 and Level 2 Physics courses. One long-standing issue is that BSc students who do not have a talent for computing and are not interested in astronomy do not have an adequate choice of optional modules. The review committee is therefore interested in introducing one or more optional courses designed to appeal to these students.

Your task is to design a 10-credit module satisfying the following criteria:

  1. It must be at the appropriate academic standard for a Level 1 or Level 2 course.
  2. It must fit into the existing framework, i.e. it must not duplicate existing material.
  3. The subject matter should appeal to the class of students discussed above.

Your design must include all the elements necessary to propose a new course to the University, including such issues as assessment strategy, prerequisites, learning outcomes, etc. A syllabus and a set of lecture notes will not suffice!


Dr. S Cartwright (D22)

Neutrino experiments normally detect neutrinos from four sources: the Sun, nuclear reactors, neutrino beams produced by accelerators, and neutrinos from decays of cosmic rays. However, there is another natural neutrino source, namely radioactive elements in the Earth. If these so-called geoneutrinos could be mapped, it could potentially increase our understanding of the interior of the Earth.

In this project, you will research the sources of geoneutrinos (the natural radioactive decay chains of long-lived isotopes of uranium and thorium) and produce a model neutrino spectrum. If time permits, we can use known neutrino interaction cross sections and detector efficiencies to predict the geoneutrino signal in experiments such as KamLAND and Super-Kamiokande.

Computational project, requiring reasonable competence in a programming language such as Python.

Small Molecule Migration through Complex Networks and Gels

Dr B Chakrabarti - E34

When two types of polymers (e.g. having different sizes) are left to equilibrate in solution, then the smaller of the two migrate to the surface that is exposed to atmosphere. This problem plagues many products we use daily from paints to chocolate. The aim of this project would be to understand the theory behind small molecule migration in complex mixtures such as polymer gels. The aim would be to predict quantitatively (i) how much material migrates to the surface, (ii) can this process be controlled, and (iii) can we inform chemists to design products that have tailored surface migration characteristics.

This is a computational/theoretical project.

Expectations: You should (i) come prepared for meetings with the supervisor, (ii) be prepared to run programs that exist within the group, (iii) write programs for analyzing simulational data (if you get stuck, you will receive help from PhD students/PDRAs/supervisor within the group).

Meeting Plan: Once weekly for an hour either face-to-face or over Skype.

Using Phase Maps to Understand Thermodynamic Phase Diagrams

Dr B Chakrabarti - E34

Soft materials are often complex mixtures of different constituents. Consequently below a certain temperature these constituents undergo a demixing or a phase separation. Computational techniques have been used recently to understand phase-separation and draw phase boundaries that demarcate regions where these constituent molecules are well-mixed or de-mixed. The aim of this project would be to develop computational methods to find phase boundaries in polymer mixtures and polymer gels using phase maps.

This is a computational project.

Expectations: You should (i) come prepared for meetings with the supervisor, (ii) be prepared to run programs that exist within the group, (iii) write programs for analyzing simulational data (if you get stuck, you will receive help from PhD students/PDRAs/supervisor within the group).

Meeting Plan: Once weekly for an hour either face-to-face or over Skype.

Nanoparticle Diffusion in Random Networks

Prof N. Clarke - F36

We will develop a computational model to simulate how nanoparticles diffuse when constrained by a random network with a mesh size which is comparable to that of the nanoparticle. Recent experimental results have shown that under certain conditions the motion of the nanoparticles becomes sub-diffusive, that is the mean squared distance that they move is not linearly proportional to time, as is the case with normal diffusive processes, but is proportional to the square root of time. The aim of the project is to understand what physical processes lead to such behaviour. You will develop a Monte Carlo model, coding in either C or Python.

Can Machine Learning Complement Physical Models?

Prof N. Clarke - F36

We will explore the ability of machine learning to replicate computational models. We will use a model of a phase transition as a test case, specifically exploring the dynamic process of phase separation. This can be described using partial differential equations. Output from such models will be used to train and test a machine learning algorithm, and the ability of the algorithm to reproduce new computational results will be tested. We will use a technique known as Gaussian processes for the machine learning, either developing the code in C or Python or using existing tools within Matlab. Although this is not a data analysis project, it will require the use of statistical methods since these are the foundation of machine learning.

Physics of Stringed Musical Instruments

Prof J W Cockburn - E15

In May 2006, a violin known as "The Hammer", made by Antonio Stradivari in 1707 was auctioned by Christie's in New York for 3.45 million dollars, making it the most expensive musical instrument in history. Stradivari's violins, as well as those of other 17th and 18th makers from northern Italy, are highly prized for their tone, projection and aesthetic beauty. However, identification of the "x-factor" that sets these instruments apart from much cheaper (and in some cases physically indistinguishable) instruments by modern makers has eluded scientists for over two hundred years. In this project, the aim will be to learn how violins work, set up experimental systems to measure and characterise the physical response of a violin to external stimuli (based on a precision miniature piezoelectric transducer system recently obtained specifically for this project) and how the response can be modified by design changes. In principle, we can study any stringed instruments (guitars etc) but bowed instruments like the violin are particularly interesting due to their greater complexity and number of "tweakable" components (bridge, soundpost, bassbar etc).

Atomic Spectroscopy

Prof. M A Fox - E14

The aim of the project is to make spectroscopic measurements of the emission lines from a discharge source such as an atomic hydrogen lamp. It will involve setting up and calibrating a spectrometer to make the measurements and analysing the data to determine a value of the Rydberg constant. The spectrum for hydrogen may then be compared with that for sodium in order to obtain values for the quantum defects in sodium.

The Student-Project Allocation Problem

Prof. M A Fox - E14

Every year, the Department runs several project modules in which students are given a list of projects on offer, and are asked to express their preferences in order of priority. The module leader then has the task of matching students to projects, aiming that as many as possible get their first choice, subject to the constraints on the number of projects an individual supervisor can run. However, this is not normally possible. Some projects and/or supervisors are very popular, with several students putting them as their first choice. How do we decide which student gets their first-choice project in the fairest possible way? For example, if several students choose this project as their first choice, then it will be up to the module leader to decide who gets it. Your task is to come up with a fairer system. That's what the project is all about!

The project is about writing a computer programme to optimize the allocation based on various criteria. This is not a simple problem. If there are N students and each student gets 3 choices, then there are 3N possible permutations. Last year, there were 46 students for PHY480, so this makes ~1022 possibilities. Many of these can be excluded, as they have two students doing the same project, but this has to be checked efficiently. I will provide an anonymised data set that can be used for the analysis, which can then be used to compare a human selector against the computer programme.

NB: This project requires computing skills, and the supervisor will NOT be able to provide help in detailed coding questions. You should only choose this project if you are confident in your ability to write code.

Tracking the Family Tree of Bugs

Dr Rhoda Hawkins - F36

Microbes reproduce fast and it is sometimes useful to know which bugs form part of the same lineage or family tree. Many microbes, including the ones we work with, reproduce asexually. This project will work with image data from experiments on growing microbes done by our biology collaborators. The aim is to computationally track which bugs are descended from which initial mothers. This will help us to decipher the growth rate and death rate of the microbes in different conditions.

Quantum Metrology - Measurements at the Heisenberg Limit

Dr P Kok - E12a

Precision measurements are the beating heart of physics. Every time we invented a way to measure something more precisely, new physical phenomena were found. When we repeat measurements of a quantity N times, the error in the measurement is given by 1/√N. However, when we use quantum entanglement, we can improve on this precision. In this project you will discover how.

Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Dr P Kok - E12a

Quantum mechanics is a very counterintuitive theory, where particles behave as waves and cats can apparently be alive and dead at the same time. In this project you will study what we can and cannot say about the reality of quantum systems, and how we should interpret the wave function.

This project has a heavy mathematical component.

Quantum Metrology - Measurements at the Heisenberg Limit

Dr P Kok - E12a

Precision measurements are the beating heart of physics. Every time we invented a way to measure something more precisely, new physical phenomena were found. When we repeat measurements of a quantity N times, the error in the measurement is given by 1/√N. However, when we use quantum entanglement, we can improve on this precision. In this project you will discover how.

Laser Optical Beams carrying Non-Zero Orbital Angular Momentum

Dr D Krizhanovskii - E16

Quantised orbital angular momentum (OAM) is associated with topological singularities occurring in many physical systems in optics, condensed matter, cosmology and fundamental particles, characterized by a phase winding of an integer multiple of 2π around a core. Structured light with OAM has been studied for a broad range of applications including quantum information, topological photonics and optical forces. The aim of this project will be to learn how to manipulate laser optical beams using a spatial light modulator or specially designed structured optical elements. The student will develop a technique allowing to induce both amplitude and phase modulation on light and to create twisted optical beams with non-zero OAM. Furthermore, interferometric techniques will be applied to measure spatial phase variations and to characterise such laser optical vortices.

Spectroscopy of Exciton Polaritons

Dr D Krizhanovskii (E16) & M Sich

There is a strong world interest in the study of hybrid light-matter particles in semiconductor microcavities and waveguides, where strong interactions between the photonic mode and exciton results in the formation of polariton quasiparticles. The exciton component leads to very strong spin-dependent polariton-polariton interactions, which already resulted in interesting phenomena such as superfluid-like behaviour, non-equilibrium condensation, vortices and solitons. Giant optical nonlinearity in polariton systems potentially may lead to development of devices of novel functionality for all-optical signal processing.

This project concerns participation in ultrafast optical experiments to study polariton solitons and condensation. You will learn the tricks of fine optical measurements and low temperature techniques. Data analysis will be performed using Matlab or C++.

Design of Optical Microstructures for On-Chip Nonlinear Optical Circuits

Dr D Krizhanovskii (E16) & P Walker

Polaritons are novel 2D quasiparticles, which form in semiconductor microcavities due to strong exciton-photon coupling. Strong optical nonlinearity in polariton systems due to an excitonic component enables the formation of solitons, which are localised non-spreading non-diffracting wave-packets. Potentially solitons can be used in all-optical ultrafast signal processing, since they can be switched on and off on a picosecond timescale, and have well-defined shape and amplitude.

This project concerns the design of optical microstructures for guiding polariton solitons and constructing polariton soliton logic gates. Linear propagation of polaritons in structures of different geometries (Y-splitter/combiner, Mach-Zahnder interferometer etc) will be simulated using available FDTD software. Nonlinear soliton phenomena will also be investigated at a later stage, and a comparison with the experimental observations will be made.

Has Dark Matter been Discovered?

Prof V Kudryavtsev - E45

A few years ago one of the experiments searching for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) expected to constitute the dark matter in the Universe, reported the positive signal from WIMPs. The aim of this project is to investigate whether the claim made by this group is serious by comparing its results with those from other experiments, and to design a new experiment that will be able to test the observed signal.

Students working on this project will study astrophysical and cosmological evidences for dark matter, learn basic principles of WIMP dark matter detection and experimental techniques. At the end of the project students will present their critical analysis of the reported observation of WIMPs and the conceptual design of a new experiment able to test these results.

Background Events in the LZ Dark Matter Experiment

Prof V Kudryavtsev (E45) & E Korolkova

Area: Particle physics and particle astrophysics
Project type: Computational

This project involves Monte Carlo modelling of some background radiations for the LZ dark matter experiment as part of a large international programme for a construction of LZ. LZ will exploit a two-phase xenon technology for dark matter detection. When designing a high-sensitivity experiment, one of the crucial problems is to ensure a low background event rate from various possible sources. This project will involve simulations of some background radiations for LZ. Students taking this project are expected to have very good computing skills after completing PHY235, 236 or any other programming module and ability to learn programming and software used in particle physics and particle astrophysics experiments.

Neutron Production in Radioactive Processes

Prof V Kudryavtsev - E45

Area: Particle physics, nuclear physics and particle astrophysics
Project type: Computational

Students taking this project are expected to have very good computing skills after completing PHY235, 236 or any other programming module and ability to learn programming and software used in particle physics and particle astrophysics experiments. The project involves calculating neutron production in (α, n) reactions and comparing the results from different codes. The primary goal of these studies is to estimate the uncertainties in the neutron flux calculations due to differences in cross-section libraries and other features in different codes. This will inform low-background particle astrophysics experiments about neutron background that these experiments may face.

Activation of Materials by Cosmic Rays

Prof V Kudryavtsev - E45

Project type: Computational

Students taking this project are expected to have very good computing skills after completing PHY235, 236 or any other programming module and ability to learn programming and software used in particle physics and particle astrophysics experiments. Activation is the process of production of radioactive isotopes by irradiating a material with a beam of particles. The project involves testing activation of different materials by cosmic rays using various simulation codes and comparing results with available experimental data. Activation by cosmic rays is used in radioactive dating and also contributes to the background in high-sensitivity particle astrophysics experiments. The primary goal of these studies is to estimate the uncertainties in calculations of the production of radioactive isotopes due to activation.

Designing a Future Dark Matter Experiment

Prof V Kudryavtsev (E45) & V Pec

This project will aim at understanding whether the Boulby Underground Laboratory (UK) is suited for a future large-scale dark matter experiment. The students will work as part of the team that will be investigating key requirements for such a project, in particular whether the depth of the Boulby mine is sufficient to remove cosmic-ray background and what kind of shielding is necessary to suppress neutrons and gamma-rays from rock. The student is expected to have a good knowledge of programming: python is sufficient as a starting point but C++ will be an advantage (needed to be learned anyway during the project). The project will involve large-scale simulations of muon-induced events and/or radioactivity from rock and the effect that these events cause in the future dark matter experiment.

Nanowaves and the Glass Transition

Dr. M. Mears - D29

Thin polymer films exhibit strange behaviour when going through their glass transition. An example is how surface-adsorbed molecules seem to diffuse much faster around the glass transition temperature of the film they are on.

In this project you will determine the glass transition profile of films using high-speed multispectral ellipsometry, and model this transition behaviour based upon our current understanding of the phase transition process. The project is experimental in nature and will involve some work in a wet laboratory as well as using a bespoke high-speed ellipsometer.

The Glass Transition Process at the Liquid-Surface Interface

Dr. M. Mears - D29

A lot of research has been conducted into the glass transition of polymer systems. Some techniques such as ellipsometry are used to study thin polymer films in an air or vapour environment whereas others employed here in Sheffield introduce a liquid layer onto the film. It is not entirely clear whether this liquid layer affects the glass transition process, so this project will investigate the impact of liquid versus air environments on the transition of polymer films.

The project is experimental in nature and will involve some work in a wet laboratory as well as using a research-grade ellipsometer.

A Novel Approach to Measuring Contact Angles and Viscosity for Clinical Applications

Dr. M. Mears - D29

The surface energy of a system defines many everyday processes such as adhesion, painting and printing - a liquid on a surface with high surface energy will tend to spread and coat the surface well.

One of the main techniques of determining surface energy is measuring the contact angle of a liquid drop using tensiometry. However the side-view approach of standard tensiometry requires a highly calibrated setup that is not appropriate for mass use such as in clinical laboratories.

This project will involve the development of a top-down contact angle measurement system that is tested against a research-grade Biolin Attension tensiometer. It is an experimental project that requires some design and innovation.

The Decay (Rate) of Education?

Dr. M. Mears - D29

In recent years there has been a lot of debate as to whether education has been "dumbed down" over the past few decades. This huge and contentious issue is by no means easy to answer but we can address it a little by looking at our own department through the lens of educational research methods.

This project will involve you designing a pedagogical research project that investigates the standard of assessments over a 40-year period. It will provide you with an introduction to education based research as well as gaining some understanding of current models of learning and assessment in a Higher Education setting.

It does not involve any laboratory or coding work but will require a student who is up for stepping out of their comfort zone a little and learning a new way of research.

The Physics of Photography

Prof. D Mowbray - E19

Photography has always had a high physics content but this has increased significantly with the advent of digital photography. A modern digital camera contains an impressive array of technology based on a number of physics principles, including CCD detectors, focussing, optics, data compression and solid state memories. The aim of this project is to research the physical principles and technology upon which modern digital cameras are based. Students are encouraged to support this with experiments using a digital camera. An additional aspect of this project would be to investigate the use of a digital camera to study physical processes, e.g. dynamics of a body using a strobe scope.

Interfacing and Sensing with a Raspberry Pi

Prof. D Mowbray (E19)

This project involves investigating how a Raspberry Pi can be interfaced to a range of sensors and output devices, both analogue and digital. Examples of sensors could include temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed; outputs include LCD and LED displays. Parameters influencing the data acquired will be investigated. Based on initial investigations you will construct a system to log, store and display data from a number of sensors.

The project will require you to learn some Python programming and a willingness to develop basic electronics skills.

Sound Experiments for Schools' Talks

Prof. D Mowbray - E19

Sound is a key topic of both the primary and secondary science curriculum and one where a wide range of practical demonstrations are possible. This project will involve the design, construction and characterisation of one or more experiments designed to demonstrate the fundamental properties of sound and/or waves. Examples could include the range of human hearing, interference or ultrasonic levitation. The project will require a range of practical skills and some knowledge, or a willingness to learn, some basic electronics.

Construction of Equipment to Demonstrate the Properties and Applications of Light

Prof. D Mowbray - E19

2015 was the International Year of Light celebrating a number of anniversaries including Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect in 1905 and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light propagation in 1865.

The aim of this project will be to construct one or more demonstrations to explain the properties and/or applications of light to the general public and/or school children. The demonstrations could show the wave or photonic nature of light and could use a range of components including LEDs, Lasers, solar cells, photodiodes, diffraction gratings, lens, prisms etc.

Chaotic Simple Pendulum: Compare Experiment with Simulations

Dr M Quinn - F37

If a simple pendulum is driven there are conditions where the motion becomes chaotic. This project will combine both experimental and computational methods. The initial objective is to build a simple driven pendulum system and perform measurements of motion particularly focused on transitions to chaos for different conditions such as driving frequency and amplitude. The student will then develop a numerical model of the system and perform simulations for similar physical parameters. This will enable a comparison between both methods.

Investigate Chaotic Motion of a Compound Pendulum using Numerical Simulation Methods

Dr M Quinn - F37

The objective of this project is to build a numerical model of a compound (or double) pendulum using the Python programming language. Using this model, the student will perform a numerical investigation of chaotic motion to determine dependency of initial conditions, transitions to chaos and to characterise the resulting strange attractors.

Investigate Chaotic Motion of a Compound Pendulum using Experimental Methods

Dr M Quinn - F37

This project aims to perform accurate measurements of motion for a driven compound pendulum system. Existing compound pendulum apparatus may be utilised. An investigation of the dependency of the motion on initial conditions will be made such as initial amplitudes, kinetic energy and mass. The analysis of the system should aim to measure and characterise transitions between linear and nonlinear regimes.

Development of Liquid Argon Particle Detector Technology for Neutrino Physics

Prof. N Spooner - E23

Liquid argon produces scintillation light when particles like gamma-rays or neutrinos interact in the medium. Reconstruction of such events in 3D then allows a very powerful technique for neutrino physics studies as is being proposed for the up-coming $1B mega-experiment DUNE in the USA.

In this project you will participate in development of charge and light readout technology concepts relevant to DUNE using small test liquid argon facilities in the laboratory. The project best suits a pair of able students with strong interest in gaining technical hardware skills in such areas as cryogenics, detector physics, vacuum techniques and optics.

(Requires two students working together.)

New Ways to Measure and Reduce Environmental Radon

Prof. N Spooner - E23

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that pervades the environment around us. It affects health but also complicates many fundamental physics experiments such as dark matter searches and searches for rare neutrino physics.

In this project the student will work on developing new ways to improve the measurement of radon emanating from materials and also techniques for reducing radon. There is chance to do this with involvement with a local high-tech company Durridge Ltd. that is developing radon instrumentation in Sheffield. The project will suit a pair of strong students interested in developing practical hardware skills and knowledge of particle or nuclear physics detectors and techniques.

The COSINE-100 Experimental Search for Dark Matter Particles in the Universe

Prof. N Spooner - E23

There has been a possible detection of Dark Matter particles by a novel experiment in Italy that looks for the expected annual modulation in signals recorded by the detector. It is vital to check that this exciting result is really due to Dark Matter, so a new experiment called COSINE-100 has been set up and is now running in an underground site in South Korea. Sheffield has been involved in this experiment with Yale University and recently co-authored a Nature paper on the first results. The student(s) will be involved in analysing the latest data from COSINE-100 in the continuing hunt for a definitive detection of Dark Matter particles.

Principles of Magnetic Resonance

Prof A Tartakovskii - E24

This project aims to simulate the spin-echo experiment in an ensemble of nuclear spins. You will use MATLAB or another programming language for writing the code. First, you will simulate the dephasing of the nuclear spin ensemble, leading to a fast decay of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal. You will then computationally apply the spin-echo method (including multiple spin-echo) to simulate the revival of the NMR signal and will find what effect this has on its spectral properties.

Optics of Novel Few-Atom-Thick Two-Dimensional Materials

Prof A Tartakovskii - E24

Following the discovery of graphene 13 years ago, tens of new few-atom-thick materials have emerged having unusual properties different from their three-dimensional 'parent' crystals. A few thousand of such materials are predicted to exist, opening a wide field for research and novel applications. In the last 5-7 years a whole new research field has grown where such materials are studied, many showing strong coupling to light.

In this project you will learn how to extract atomic layers from bulk crystals, and how to identify them using optical microscope and spectroscopy techniques. You will be embedded in the active research group ( and will work side-by-side PhD students and postdocs conducting cutting-edge research in nanoscience.

Development of a Peak Finding and Fitting Algorithm for the Treatment of HPLC Spectra

Prof L Thompson - E41

Identifying peaks in data is a common requirement in different experiments, e.g. in performing gamma ray spectroscopy. In this case a number of spectra taken using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography will be used. The task is to write a computer algorithm to locate the peaks in the data and to estimate the size of the peaks. Ideally this should be done with a user friendly graphical interface.

Motion of Particle Orbits in a Circular Storage Ring

Prof L Thompson - E41

Storage rings are a type of particle accelerator in which beams of charged particles, typically (but not uniquely) electrons, can be stored, often for many hours at a time. Storage of charged particles requires a magnetic field created with a collection of dipole and quadrupole magnets. The project aims to develop a simulation of a storage ring in which a full description of the motion of a charged particle in the magnetic field can be represented. Using the so-called Monte Carlo technique the behaviour of an ensemble of charged particles in the storage ring will be studied in order to develop an understanding of the fundamental characteristics and performance of the storage ring.

Lightning Location with the Met Office LEELA Network

Prof D Tovey - F31

This project focuses on the location of severe thunderstorms by analysis of VLF radio wave "sferics" received at Met Office radio receivers across Europe. Measurement of differences in arrival time between the signals at different receivers enables the location of individual lightning strikes to be determined. This project will focus on understanding the physics behind VLF radiowave propagation and using this knowledge to improve location efficiency and accuracy.

A good level of proficiency with Python is required.

Automating Task Scheduling for Physicists

Dr Trevor Vickey - D27

In this project you will develop a computer program to assist with assigning duties to physicists with varying skills and availability. The finished program will read in input information about people's availability and skills and output a rota which assigns and schedules tasks. The program will optimise a uniform distribution of workload. If time allows, a number of extra conditions and criteria could be built in, such as obtaining an even spread of genders and allowing for part time or flexible working hours. A successful outcome to this project would produce a program which will be useful for the physics department in the future.

The Physics of SCUBA Diving

Dr T Vickey - D27

The student selecting this project will get to explore the physics associated with diving. The project will focus on one or more physical principles such as pressure, buoyancy, sound and/or light, and these will be explored in depth and in a quantitative way. Computer simulations will be used by the student to explore theoretical concepts and explain (quantitatively) what one experiences while diving.

Deep Machine Learning to Identify Semiconductor Sensor Imperfections

Dr T Vickey - D27

The students selecting this project will review the concepts behind silicon detectors and the importance of their role in active collider experiments. There will be an opportunity for some hands-on work with silicon detectors in the Sheffield Semiconductor Detector Facility (SSDF) in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. Deep Learning tools such as KERAS and TensorFlow will be used to train machine neural networks to automatically identify surface imperfections on silicon sensors.

Dielectric Multilayers

Prof. D Whittaker - E12B

High reflectivity Bragg mirrors are made from alternating layers of dielectric materials, with high and low refractive index. By altering one of these layers, it is easy to make a cavity which traps light in the structure. In this project, you will use the transfer matrix method to calculate the properties of dielectric multilayers, and investigate different types of cavity design. Many of the concepts involved are directly analogous to the electronic band structure theory which will be studying in PHY380.

Lorenz Waterwheel

Prof. D Whittaker - E12B

The Lorenz waterwheel is a nice example of a chaotic mechanical system (it is, in fact, related to a model of convection in the atmosphere). Under the right flow conditions, from time to time it will change its direction of rotation. The aim of this project is to build a waterwheel, and study enough chaos theory to understand why it behaves as it does.

The Upside-Down Pendulum

Prof. D Whittaker - E12B

A simple pendulum is in stable equilibrium only when it hangs vertically below its pivot. It also has an unstable equilibrium, with the bob vertically above the pivot. However, this vertically up position can be made stable if the pivot oscillates up and down at a suitable frequency. The aim of this project is to model this effect on a computer, and build a physical pendulum to investigate the stability which is obtained.

Bandstructure Effects in Coaxial Cable Networks

Prof. D Whittaker - E12B

There is a mathematical equivalence between tight-binding models of solid state physics and propagation of radio frequency waves in transmission lines such as coaxial cables. We can, for example, create a periodic structure of cables with different impedances which simulates a crystal lattice, with bandstructure, band gaps etc. In this project we will look at making one- and two-dimensional structures (such as a graphene lattice) and using RF transmission measurements to probe their properties. This will involve both experiments and theoretical modelling to help interpret the results we obtain.